想减肥吗？ 酮是当今最大的饮食时尚之一。 但是首先，通过这份全面的食物清单和用餐计划，了解可以吃什么和不能吃什么。
If you’re looking to get a jump start on your health and fitness goals this year, you may be thinking about trying the ketogenic diet. Maybe you’ve heard the phrase before — it’s a huge diet buzzword — but aren’t sure what it means. Here’s a primer: The ketogenic diet is an eating plan that drives your body into ketosis, a state where the body uses fat as a primary fuel source (instead of carbohydrates), says Stacey Mattinson, RDN, who is based in Austin, Texas. When you’re eating the foods that get you there (more on that in a minute), your body can enter a state of ketosis in one to three days, she adds. During the diet, the majority of calories you consume come from fat, with a little protein and very little carbohydrates. Ketosis also happens if you eat a very low-calorie diet — think doctor-supervised, medically recommended diets of 600 to 800 total calories per day.
Benefits and Risks of the Diet That Beginners Need to Know
Research backs up undertaking a ketogenic diet in three circumstances: to aid treatment of epilepsy, to help manage type 2 diabetes, and to support weight loss, says Mattinson, and the last two purposes still need more studies. “In terms of diabetes, there is some promising research showing that the ketogenic diet may improve glycemic control. It may cause a reduction in A1C — a key test for diabetes that measures a person’s average blood sugar control over two to three months — something that may help you reduce medication use,” she says. But for people with diabetes, one big concern is you’re eating a lot of fat on keto, and that fat may be saturated, which is unhealthy when eaten in excess. (The much higher total fat intake is also a challenge among keto beginners.) Because people with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, there’s a specific concern that the saturated fat in the diet may drive up LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels, and further increase the odds of heart problems. If you have type 2 diabetes, talk to your doctor before attempting a ketogenic diet. She may recommend a different weight loss diet for you, like a reduced-calorie diet, to manage diabetes. Those with epilepsy should also consult their doctor before using this as part of their treatment plan.MORE ON THE KETO DIET AND DIABETES
Does the Ketogenic Diet Work for Type 2 Diabetes?
Researchers caution that further research is needed to confirm these findings and prove a cause-and-effect relationship between keto and preventing dementia. In terms of weight loss, you may be interested in trying the ketogenic diet because you’ve heard that it can make a big impact right away. And that may be true. “Ketogenic diets will cause you to lose weight within the first week,” says Mattinson. She explains that your body will first use up all its glycogen stores (the storage form of carbohydrate). With depleted glycogen, you’ll drop water weight. While it can be motivating to see the number on the scale go down (often dramatically), do keep in mind that most of this is water loss initially.But the keto diet can be an effective option over time. One review suggested the keto diet can spur fat loss in obese people when used for a couple of weeks and up to one year. A meta-analysis noted that one likely reason for weight loss is that keto diets may suppress hunger. One downside to the ketogenic diet for weight loss is that it’s difficult to maintain. “Studies show that weight loss results from being on a low-carb diet for more than 12 months tend to be the same as being on a normal, healthy diet,” says Mattinson. While you may be eating more satiating fats (like peanut butter, regular butter, or avocado), you’re also way more limited in what’s allowed on the diet, which can make everyday situations, like eating dinner with family or going out with friends, far more difficult. Because people often find it tough to sustain, it’s easy to rely on it as a short-term diet rather than a long-term lifestyle. RELATED: Keto Made Me Thinner — Here’s Why I Quit the Diet Another potential downside to the keto diet: the keto flu. One study, published in March 2020 in Frontiers in Nutrition,found that across 43 different online forums for people following a keto diet, about a third of commenters reported experiencing this short-term keto side effect. In the first few days after you begin your keto diet plan, you may experience headaches, muscle cramps, fatigue, nausea, constipation, and other flu-like symptoms, according to Harvard Health Publishing.These symptoms usually resolve within a few days to a few weeks, and you can help to counter them by drinking plenty of fluids with electrolytes, according to an article published June 2020 in StatPearls. Before starting, ask yourself what is really realistic for you, Mattinson suggests. Then get your doctor’s okay. You may also work with a local registered dietitian nutritionist to limit potential nutrient deficiencies and talk about vitamin supplementation, as you won’t be eating whole grains, dairy, or fruit, and will eliminate many veggies. “A diet that eliminates entire food groups is a red flag to me. This isn’t something to take lightly or dive into headfirst with no medical supervision,” she says.
What to Keep in Mind When Creating Your Ketogenic Meal Plan
If you’ve decided to move forward in trying the keto diet, you will want to stick to the parameters of the eating plan. Roughly 60 to 80 percent of your calories will come from fats. That means you’ll eat meats, fats, and oils, and a very limited amount of nonstarchy vegetables, she says. (This is different from a traditional low-carb diet, as even fewer carbs are allowed on the keto diet.) The remaining calories in the keto diet come from protein — about 1 gram (g) per kilogram of body weight, so a 140-pound woman would need about 64 g of protein total. As for carbs: “Every body is different, but most people maintain ketosis with between 20 and 50 g of net carbs per day,” says Mattinson. Total carbohydrates minus fiber equals net carbs, she explains. One thing to remember: “It’s easy to get ‘kicked out’ of ketosis,” says Mattinson. Meaning, if you eat something as small as a serving of blueberries, your body could revert to burning carbohydrates for fuel rather than fat.
A Complete Food Guide to Follow
想知道什么适合酮饮食-什么不适合？ “重要的是要在开始之前先知道要吃什么食物，以及如何在饮食中添加更多的脂肪，”《生酮饮食：一种科学证明的快速健康减肥方法》的作者克里斯汀·曼西内利说。 ，他位于纽约市。 我们要求她提供一些指导。
Liberally Ketogenic diets aren’t high in protein (they focus on fat) so these should all be consumed in moderation.
- Grass-fed beef
- Fish, especially fatty fish, like salmon
- Dark meat chicken
- Low-fat proteins, like skinless chicken breast and shrimp. These are great to include in your keto diet, but add a sauce on top for some fat rather than eating them plain.
- Cold cuts with added sugar (read the label!)
- Meat that has been marinated in sugary sauces
- Fish or chicken nuggets
Oil and Fat
- Avocado oil
- Olive oil
- Coconut oil
- Heavy cream
Occasionally Limit your consumption of these oils, which should be easy to do if you’re avoiding packaged foods, where they’re often found.
- Sunflower oil
- Safflower oil
- Corn oil
- Artificial trans fats
Fruits and Veggies
- Leafy greens, like spinach and arugula
Occasionally These are great choices, but you’ll need to count the carbs.
- Spaghetti squash
Nuts and Seeds
- Flaxseed and chia seeds
- Unsweetened nut butters (almond or peanut butter)
- Trail mixes with dried fruit
- Sweetened nut or seed butters
- Chocolate-covered nuts
- Cheddar cheese
- Blue cheese
- Feta cheese
- Full-fat cottage cheese
- Full-fat plain Greek yogurt
- Full-fat ricotta cheese
- Sweetened nonfat yogurt
- Ice cream
Liberally None; always practice moderation with sweeteners. Occasionally
- Maple syrup
- White and brown sugars
Condiments and Sauces
- Lemon butter sauce
- Mayonnaise (ensure there’s no sugar added)
- Raw garlic
- Tomato sauce (look for those with no added sugar)
- Balsamic vinegar
- Barbecue sauce
- Honey mustard
- Almond milk
- Bone broth
- Plain tea
- Black coffee (watch caffeine consumption)
- Unsweetened carbonated water (limit only if bubbles make you bloated)
- Diet soda
- Zero-calorie drinks
- Fruit juice
Herbs and Spices
Liberally All herbs and spices fit in a keto diet, but if you’re using large amounts, Mancinelli recommends counting the carbs.
- Salt (salt foods to taste)
- Thyme, oregano, paprika, and cayenne
Occasionally These are good choices, but do contain some carbs.
- Ground ginger
- Garlic powder
- Onion powder
- No herbs and spices are off-limits; they’re generally okay to use in small amounts to add flavor to foods.
Optional These help you produce ketones more quickly; Mancinelli says she has no recommendation about taking or avoiding them.
- MCT oil
- Exogenous ketones